Original Title: Titanium and Titanium Alloy Materials in Dental Implant Applications 1. Pure titanium Since Branemark put forward the theory of osseointegration, pure titanium and titanium alloys (mainly Ti-6Al-4V) have been the preferred materials for dental implants. Studies have found that pure titanium has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, as well as excellent mechanical properties, including hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and fatigue strength, which can meet the functional requirements of dental implants. It has been widely used in clinical as an implant material and has achieved good restoration results. However, the dark color of titanium can penetrate the thin mucosa at the implant site, thus affecting the aesthetic effect of thin-gingival patients. The elastic modulus of titanium is higher than that of human bone, and the elastic modulus of titanium is 110 GPa. The elastic modulus is 20 to 30 GPa, and bone resorption may occur due to stress shielding. With the increase of clinical application, recent studies have found that pure titanium implants have the risk of peri-implantitis, which can release titanium ions to participate in gingival inflammation and periodontal inflammation. In addition, titanium may have immunogenicity, as an allergen, causing type IV hypersensitivity to metal implants in some allergic patients. Therefore, scholars at home and abroad have been devoting themselves to the research and exploration of dental implant materials with more ideal performance in all aspects,titanium plate gr7, which can replace pure titanium. 2. Titanium alloy After pure titanium implant was widely used in clinic, titanium alloy dental implant materials were gradually developed. Compared with pure titanium, the addition of alloying elements can improve the corrosion resistance and machinability of the material, reduce the elastic modulus, and reduce the risk of fracture, especially for narrow-diameter implants. Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely used in clinical practice. In recent years,titanium sheet grade 5, related studies have found that Ti-6Al-4V alloy can release very small amounts of vanadium and aluminum ions, which can cause harm to human body, such as Alzheimer's disease, peripheral neuropathy and osteomalacia. Therefore, scholars began to focus on the development of non-toxic titanium alloys. Beta-type titanium alloying elements such as Nb, Zr, Ga, Mo, Pd, Se, Sn, Ta, ti6al4v ,titanium exhaust tubing, Ge, etc. Are considered to be safe and non-toxic alloying elements. Therefore, in the process of seeking more ideal implant materials, the alloying of titanium has become one of the research hotspots in this field. 2.1 Titanium Zirconium Alloy (Ti-Zr) Zirconium and titanium belong to the same main group. They have similar physical and chemical properties: both have excellent corrosion resistance, super high mechanical strength and excellent plasticity, and have no toxic effects on body tissues. 2.2 Titanium-niobium alloy (Ti-Nb) Titanium-niobium alloys have attracted more and more attention because of their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Studies have shown that titanium-niobium alloy has sufficient corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, can promote bone formation, and has the potential to become an implant material, but its mechanical properties need to be confirmed by scholars. 2.3 Titanium-aluminum-niobium alloy Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy was developed because scholars were worried that Ti-6Al-4V alloy would release toxic vanadium ions and cause adverse reactions to human body. Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy is non-toxic and has similar mechanical properties to Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and its corrosion resistance is also strong. In recent years, it has gradually come into the sight of dental implant scholars. The results show that Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy not only retains the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, but also has better biocompatibility, biosafety and corrosion resistance, which is more conducive to the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts, and the bone integration ability is equivalent to that of pure titanium. Expand the full text 2.4 Titanium niobium tin alloy (Ti-Nb-Sn) The elastic modulus of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy is about 40 GPa, and it has no cytotoxicity, good corrosion resistance and bone histocompatibility. Titanium-niobium-tin alloy has the same biological potential and bone bonding energy as pure titanium Force. 2.5 Titanium Tantalum Zirconium Alloy (Ti-Ta-Zr) After the Ti-Ta-Zr alloy is synthesized, tantalum can reduce the elastic modulus of the material, and zirconium can improve the corrosion resistance. Compared with pure titanium, Ti-Ta-Zr alloy has lower elastic modulus, better corrosion resistance and hydrophilicity, and better osseointegration ability, which is expected to become a substitute for pure titanium implant materials. 2.6 Titanium niobium zirconium alloy (Ti-Nb-Zr) Ti-Nb-Zr alloy has excellent ductility, elastic modulus of 79 GPa, excellent plastic deformation ability, good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Titanium-niobium-zirconium alloy has excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, and has the potential to become a candidate material for dental implants. 2.7 Titanium niobium zirconium tin alloy (Ti-Nb-Zr-Sn) Ti-Nb-Zr-Sn alloy is a new titanium alloy with high strength and low elastic modulus. According to Nune et al., Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy is expected to be used clinically in the future because of its unique chemical properties and high hydrophilicity, which is conducive to the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, mineralization of osteoblasts and the synthesis of related proteins. 2.8 Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy Titanium-niobium-zirconium-tantalum alloy has similar histocompatibility with Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which can promote the proliferation of osteoblasts and increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Therefore, Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy has the potential to become an alternative material for pure titanium implants. 2.9 Titanium niobium zirconium tantalum silicon alloy (Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si) In recent years, a new type of five-phase titanium alloy, Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si alloy, has been gradually developed and studied by dental implantologists. The results showed that the osseointegration ability of Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si alloy implants was equivalent to that of pure titanium,6al4v titanium bar, which could increase the mineralization deposition rate of surrounding bone in the early stage after implant implantation. However, scholars have only done a preliminary study, and the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the material need to be further studied and confirmed. Source: Research Status of New Materials for Oral Implants Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. yunchtitanium.com
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